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In 272, the Emperor Aurelian crossed the البوسفور (مضيق) and advanced quickly through أناضول, to reconquer the lost provinces now under Palmyra.
Entering إسوس and heading to أنطاكية (مدينة تاريخية), Aurelian defeated Zabdas in the معركة أنطاكيا, near أنطاكية (مدينة تاريخية). The Palmyrene armies retreated to Antioch then later حمص while Aurelian advanced and معركة حمص. The defeat at Emesa forced the Palmyrene armies to evacuate to the capital. The Romans began a siege, and tried to breach the city defenses several times but were repelled, however, the situation worsened, so Zenobia, Vaballathus"s mother, left the city and headed east to ask the ساسانيون, for help. The Romans whatsoever followed the queen, arrested her near the Euphrates and brought her back to the emperor. Soon after, the Palmyrene citizens asked for peace, and the city fell.